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The scope and content of social work practice in South Africa have changes considerably since the advent of democracy in 1994. The changes and their consequences have led to marginalisalisation of social workers and a subsequent crisis of professional identity. These issues and trends are discussed in this chapter which aims to determine the present and future demand for and supply of social workers. Analysis of available data indicates that there are currently 23.6 social workers per 100 000 of the population of whom only about 46 percent are employed within the formal welfare sector. Shortages are created by maldistribution of skills across sectors and provinces. These are aggravated by emigration and movements out of the profession due to factors such as poor salaries and working conditions, limited resources, high workloads and lack of professional respect. These same factors appear to be the main constraints to supply, with graduation rates revealing a generally negative trend since 1999. The chapter concludes that, of this situation is allowed to continue, South Africa will not be able to maintain current social worker/population ratios let alone begin to meet the growing welfare needs of the South African population of the newly proposed national norms.